Sophists' Almanac

世界について知りたいとき

Democracy ① Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson - それは一国の独立宣言というだけではない。人間の主権者としての宣言だった。

1776年7月4日、

独立宣言が採択されました。

 

『全ての人間は平等に作られている』

 

それは一国の独立宣言というだけではなくて、人間の主権者としての人権宣言でもありました。

 

この "all men" は、1776年の当時には。アフリカ系アメリカ人も、先住民も、アジア系も、そして女性も、含まれてはいませんでした。つまりこの all men はアメリカの当時の英国領植民地の英国系白人男性のみを意味していたという事です。

 

しかし、民主主義は言葉が導く政治です。いまも、文字通り世界中で、この all men が、「すべての人間」を意味するよう、民主主義の理念は人々を動かし続けています。

 

今日覚えるべき言葉はこれ。

 

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

 

⇩ とりあえず、聞いてみよう !

  

youtu.be

 

Declaration of Independence (1776)

 

あのスーパーボールでも、独立宣言をリスペクトします。

 

youtu.be

 

In Congress, July 4, 1776.

(Introduction) 1:22

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

 

人類の歴史において、ある国民が、他の国民とを結び付けてきた政治的なきずなを断ち切り、世界の諸 国家の間で、自然の法と自然神の法によって与えられる独立平等の地位を占めることが必要となったとき、 全世界の人々の意見を真摯に尊重するならば、その国の人々は自分たちが分離せざるを得なくなった理由 について公に明言すべきであろう。

 

(Preamble) 1:52

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

 

われわれは、以下の事実を自明のことと信じる。すなわち、すべての人間は生まれながらにして平等で あり、その創造主によって、生命、自由、および幸福の追求を含む不可侵の権利を与えられているという こと。こうした権利を確保するために、人々の間に政府が樹立され、政府は統治される者の合意に基づい て正当な権力を得る。そして、いかなる形態の政府であれ、政府がこれらの目的に反するようになったと きには、人民には政府を改造または廃止し、新たな政府を樹立し、人民の安全と幸福をもたらす可能性が 最も高いと思われる原理をその基盤とし、人民の安全と幸福をもたらす可能性が最も高いと思われる形の 権力を組織する権利を有するということ、である。

 

Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

 

もちろん、長年にわたり樹立されている政府を軽々し い一時的な理由で改造すべきではないことは思慮分別が示す通りである。従って、あらゆる経験が示すよ うに、人類は、慣れ親しんでいる形態を廃止することによって自らの状況を正すよりも、弊害が耐えられ るものである限りは、耐えようとする傾向がある。しかし、権力の乱用と権利の侵害が、常に同じ目標に 向けて長期にわたって続き、人民を絶対的な専制の下に置こうとする意図が明らかであるときには、その ような政府を捨て去り、自らの将来の安全のために新たな保障の組織を作ることが、人民の権利であり義 務である。これらの植民地が耐え忍んできた苦難は、まさにそうした事態であり、そして今、まさにその ような必要性によって、彼らはこれまでの政府を変えることを迫られているのである。現在の英国王の治世の歴史は、度重なる不正と権利侵害の歴史であり、そのすべてがこれらの諸邦に対する絶対専制の確立 を直接の目的としている。このことを例証するために、以下の事実をあえて公正に判断する世界の人々に 向けて提示することとする。

 

(Indictment)

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

 

(Denunciation)

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

 

(Conclusion)

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

 

 

 

Declaration of Independence - July 4th, 1776