Sophists' Almanac

世界について知りたいとき

War and Peace ③ 学徒出陣 - 特攻隊振武寮 - 大学のキャンパスから特攻隊へ、そして生き残って振武寮に幽閉された青年たちの記録。

みんなは大貫妙子さんって歌手しってる?

きれいな歌声なので、

よく CM にも使われていたし、

いつまでたってもきれいな人だな~。

 

youtu.be

 

で、この大貫さんのお父さまは、

実は特攻隊の生き残りの人なんです。

 

特攻隊というと、

 

たとえばいろんな映画や本やサイトで

いろいろと勇壮な英雄たちの悲劇の物語として語られるけど、本当はどうだったのだろう。。。。

 

特攻は非人道的で、自爆テロ (suicide bombing) と変わりないという批判に対して、いや、特攻は日本の「美学」だとまでいいだす人々も増えてきています。

 

 

特攻は美しいのか ?

 

SNS ではエリウヨ (エリート右翼) つまり「富裕層の右翼」として有名な高須クリニック高須克弥医院長 (72) が先日ツイッターでこのようなツイートをしました。

 

twitter.com

 

こればかりは、

No! 高須クリニック !

※ Yes 高須クリニックという CM にリアクションしてみました (笑)。

 

ここで確認ですが、

この手の「情報のすり替え」には注意しましょう。

 

憲法前文に記されているのは、「平和を維持し、専制と隷従、圧迫と偏狭を地上から永遠に除去しようと努めてゐる国際社会において、名誉ある地位を占めたいと思ふ」

 

非戦と平和主義、国民主権人道主義で名誉ある地位を占めたいと書かれているのであって、「特攻」と「玉砕」で世界から尊敬されたいなどと憲法に書かれているわけはありません !

 

読書家で知られる、高須克弥氏の息子で、高須クリニックの副委員長の高須力弥さんは、父のツイートにこう返信しています。

 

twitter.com

 

ウルトラ右翼の父と、優しい教養ある息子さんの、このツイートは少し話題になりましたね。

 

高須クリニックの医院長のような歴史修正主義 (historical revisionism) が高まる中で、

  

私たちがまず知っておくべきなのは

「特攻」とか「玉砕」の実相とはどんなものだったのか、ということです。

 

今日は特攻について学んでみよう。

 

 

特攻隊とは、『特別攻撃隊』のこと。

 

特別攻撃隊 (特攻隊) 

a. 軍用機 (飛行機) ⇦ 今日扱うのはこれ。

b. 高速艇 (ボート) ⇦ 震洋

c. 潜水艇 (人間魚雷)

d. 爆弾をもって体当たり自爆

 

兵士が枯渇し、短期間で技術を習得させるために、特攻隊のおおくに大学生 (学徒兵) が充てられたのです。

 

特攻隊振武寮 ─ 証言:帰還兵は地獄を見た

 

今日は、特攻隊大貫妙子さんの父、大貫健一さんの本を紹介します。

 

これ、等身大の若者の姿がいきいきと描かれていて、すごく読みやすく、ぐんぐんとお話 (oral history) にひきこまれていきます。

 

軍隊のなかの抑圧構造は、現在の会社の過労死問題や学校のいじめの構造と同じ感じだっていうのがわかるし、めちゃ、お薦めです。

 

      

 

▶ 特攻隊振武寮 ─ 証言:帰還兵は地獄を見た

2009/7/10

大貫 健一郎 (著)  渡辺 考  (著)

 

「父は特攻隊が美化されることを、常に危惧していました」
(大貫少尉の長女・大貫妙子さんミュージシャン)

昭和20年5月、陸軍が福岡に設けた生き残り
特攻隊員の収容施設・振武寮で、大貫少尉は上官に殴打され、怒声を浴びつづけた。

■ 序章「幽閉された軍神」より

私たち生き残った二八名の特攻隊員は、第六航空軍司令部に隣接する私立福岡女学校の寄宿舎に連れていかれました。寄宿舎の周囲には鉄条網が張り巡らされ、銃を持った衛兵が入口に立っていて、ものものしい雰囲気です。

振武寮」……。

真新しい看板に黒のペンキで、そう書かれていました。
それから、一六日間の幽閉生活が始まったのです。

 

大貫健一
1921年福岡県生まれ。台湾で育ち、基隆中学を経て、拓殖大学卒。1942年10月陸軍小倉歩兵第14連隊入隊。43年6月特別操縦見習士官制度に志願合格し、10月大刀洗陸軍飛行学校本校に入校。44年8月明野教導飛行師団入隊。陸軍特攻隊「第22振武隊」の一員に選ばれる。45年4月鹿児島県知覧飛行場から特攻機で沖縄に向かうも、徳之島に不時着。その後福岡市に移送され、生き残り特攻隊員の収容施設である「振武寮」に軟禁された。三重県菰野陸軍飛行基地で、本土防衛特攻隊員として終戦を迎える

 

またドキュメンタリーも放映されました。

これも必見です。

 

 

 

特攻機で沖縄に向かうも、驚くべき数の機体が機器の不良などで不時着。生きて帰ってきた特攻隊員も多くいた。

 

生きて帰ってきた「英霊」たちは、国家にとって不都合な存在。

 

彼らは振武寮に閉じ込められ、徹底的に苛め抜かれ、再び特攻隊となって「英霊」「護国の神」として死ぬことを強いられる。

 

そんな極限に追いつめられていく若者たちが、精神的につぶされなかったのは、自分たちが大学で学んできた学問のおかげだったのかもしれない。

 

そうなってくると、ますます見えてくる軍隊内部の矛盾、腐りきった日本の軍の実態。それが見えてくる。

 

みずからは死にもしない無教養な軍人どもに、「死ね」といわれたくない !

 

こんな意地が彼らのなかに少しづつ芽生えてきます。

  

一方で、生き残った学生たちにもう一度、特攻隊として死ぬように叩きこむ側にあった倉澤参謀は、学徒兵のことをこう語っています。

 

生き残った学徒兵に対し、また死を再び覚悟させることは予想以上に困難なことでした。倉澤参謀 (当時28才) は、ただひたすら国のために死ね、といいつづけます。

 

倉澤元参謀談

『年齢を若くして参謀なんかになって、特攻隊にならないで、われわれ素人を特攻隊用に大学から引っぱってきて、話が、筋が違うという態度が、露骨には言わないけれど消えなかった。

 

『だからね、これは悪口ではないですよ、法律とかね、政治を知っちゃって、ま、今の言葉で言えば、人のいのちは月より重いなんて知っちゃうとね、死ぬのが怖くなるんですよ。

 

『それをその、世間常識のないうちからね、徹底的にマインドコントロール、洗脳すればね、自然にそういう人間になっちゃうんですよ。』 

 

終戦後、倉澤は一橋大学を卒業し印刷会社の社長にまで栄達したが、1945年終戦から1996年までの51年間もの間、生き残りの特攻隊員や遺族の報復を恐れて、軍刀拳銃を隠し持っていた。「多くの隊員を出撃させたので、恨みに思われるのは仕方ないし、遺族からも反感を買っているので、いつ報復されるかわからないと、夜も安心して寝ることができなかった。80歳までは自己防衛のために、ピストルに実弾を込めて持ち歩き、家では軍刀を手離さなかったんです」と告白している

 

職業軍人は、じぶんたちは特攻になることはないのに、大学生を大学から引っぱってきて特攻にさせた。

 

そうした参謀たちからいわせると、大学でいろんな学問を学んできた学徒兵たちを「洗脳」するのに手を焼いたと。

 

大学で「法律とかね、政治を知っちゃって、ま、今の言葉で言えば、人のいのちは月より重いなんて」知っちゃった大学生たちは扱いが難しかったと回想している。

 

大学生は、口には出さないけど、自分たちを精神的に叩きのめし「死」に追い込もうとする職業軍人たちに反抗的な態度を示していたことが、この証言からもわかりますね。

 

特攻隊員として再教育するためには、大学で学ぶ教養などは邪魔だった。

 

学問はまさに人を生かす英知。だからこそ、世間常識がないうちに洗脳するのが必須と考えたのでしょう。

 

 

靖国神社の「英霊思想」とは?

 

 

日本では、靖国神社の「英霊思想」を、いまだに戦没者の慰霊と混合して語ることがまかり通っています。

 

稲田行革相が靖国参拝 閣僚3人目 : 動画 - 47NEWS (よんななニュース)

靖国参拝 に対する画像結果

閣僚3人目

稲田朋美行政改革担当相は15日午後、東京・九段北の靖国神社を参拝した。安倍内閣の閣僚として、この日3人目の閣僚参拝。

 

しかし、戦中日本の「英霊思想」を検証することなく、英霊崇拝のために靖国参拝することは、果たしてほんとうに戦争で命を奪われた人々の供養になるのでしょうか。

 

靖国神社に参拝することは、靖国神社の英霊思想を内面化することでもあるからです。

 

「英霊」となって死ぬことを強要された人々の証言を聞くことなく、「英霊思想」を検証することは不可能です。

 

ひとりの等身大の青年が、「英霊」とされて死を強要されるということは、どういう事だったのか。

 

 

まず大貫健一郎さんの本を読んでみましょう。

 

題名や副題から「振武寮」における帰還兵への理不尽な横暴がメインストーリーのように思えるが、特別操縦見習仕官となり、のち特攻隊となるが、飛行機の故障で帰還し、そして終戦までに到るまでの筆者の経験が綴られている。特攻隊として出撃することへの心の葛藤、それは今の時代を生きる我々からは想像を絶する戦いであったことと思われるが、本書では正にその想いが面々と綴られている。


特攻隊の仲間との筆者の思い出は、読んでいる自分もまるで特攻隊の一員となっているように錯覚するほど生き生きと描かれており、戦後数十年を経ても、筆者が如何に仲間を強く想い続けていたかが想像される。終戦近くになると戦闘機の性能や整備の精度が落ちており、沖縄に辿り着けなかった機が多数あったことには驚かされた。

 

最近戦争経験者が死期を悟り、ようやく口を開き始めた理由、頑なに語らなかった理由がよくわかる書。読んでいて感じたのは、軍隊の陰湿ないじめや理不尽さが、今の日本のブラック企業にも通じるものがあるということ。私が勤めていた会社で上司が過労死し、葬儀で常務がニヤけていたのを思い出す。皺寄せを受ける者達に対する、狂気とも言える冷たさ、無関心さ。

大貫氏が終戦直後、見栄を捨て、最底辺の仕事につき何をやってでも生きていこうとするたくましさには感動した。長女の大貫妙子さんは終戦時に父の人生は終わり、後は余生だったと言っていますが、あの終戦直後のタフさが最も尊いものに思えた。これが生きるということなのだと思う。

 

亡くなる前に、右翼からの中傷も恐れず、勇気ある証言をした大貫健一郎さんも、病に倒れ、いまはなき人となりました。

 

その父の老後を看病し、最期をみとった、

娘で歌手の大貫妙子さん。

彼女の純粋で芯の強い美しい歌声は、きっとお父さん譲りだな、って、彼女の歌声を聴きながら思うのです。

 

youtu.be

 

f:id:classlovesophia:20170818171546p:plain

 

Democracy ② The United States Constitution アメリカ合衆国憲法は人類初の現代民主主義国家の土台となつた

The Constitution of the United States (1789)

 

Preamble (前文) を暗唱してみよう !

 

youtu.be

 

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

 

 

US Constitution Table of Contents

Democracy ① Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson - それは一刻の独立宣言ではない。人間の主権者としての宣言だった。

Declaration of Independence (1776)

 

youtu.be

In Congress, July 4, 1776.

(Introduction) 1:22

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.

 

 

(Preamble) 1:52

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.

Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.

 

(Indictment)

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.

He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.

He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.

He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.

He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.

He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.

 

(Denunciation)

Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.

 

(Conclusion)

We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.

 

Declaration of Independence - July 4th, 1776

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Civil Rights Movement: Robert F. Kennedy - on the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr. キング牧師の暗殺によせるロバート・F・ケネディーの演説

robert f. kennedy に対する画像結果

Robert F. Kennedy - Wikipedia

Robert Francis "Bobby" Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968) was an American politician and lawyer from Massachusetts. He served as the United States junior senator from New York from January 1965 until his assassination in June 1968. He was previously the 64th U.S. Attorney General from January 1961 to September 1964, serving under his older brother President John F. Kennedy and his successor, President Lyndon B. Johnson. Kennedy was a member of the Democratic Party, and is seen as an icon of modern American liberalism.

 

youtu.be

 

Robert F. Kennedy - に対する画像結果

 

Robert F. Kennedy's speech on the assassination of Martin Luther King Jr.

 

Ladies and Gentlemen,

 

I'm only going to talk to you just for a minute or so this evening, because I have some -- some very sad news for all of you -- Could you lower those signs, please? -- I have some very sad news for all of you, and, I think, sad news for all of our fellow citizens, and people who love peace all over the world; and that is that Martin Luther King was shot and was killed tonight in Memphis, Tennessee.

 

Martin Luther King dedicated his life to love and to justice between fellow human beings. He died in the cause of that effort. In this difficult day, in this difficult time for the United States, it's perhaps well to ask what kind of a nation we are and what direction we want to move in. For those of you who are black -- considering the evidence evidently is that there were white people who were responsible -- you can be filled with bitterness, and with hatred, and a desire for revenge.

 

We can move in that direction as a country, in greater polarization -- black people amongst blacks, and white amongst whites, filled with hatred toward one another. Or we can make an effort, as Martin Luther King did, to understand, and to comprehend, and replace that violence, that stain of bloodshed that has spread across our land, with an effort to understand, compassion, and love.

 

For those of you who are black and are tempted to fill with -- be filled with hatred and mistrust of the injustice of such an act, against all white people, I would only say that I can also feel in my own heart the same kind of feeling. I had a member of my family killed, but he was killed by a white man.

 

But we have to make an effort in the United States. We have to make an effort to understand, to get beyond, or go beyond these rather difficult times.

 

My favorite poem, my -- my favorite poet was Aeschylus. And he once wrote:

 

Even in our sleep, pain which cannot forget
falls drop by drop upon the heart,
until, in our own despair,
against our will,
comes wisdom
through the awful grace of God.

 

What we need in the United States is not division; what we need in the United States is not hatred; what we need in the United States is not violence and lawlessness, but is love, and wisdom, and compassion toward one another, and a feeling of justice toward those who still suffer within our country, whether they be white or whether they be black.

 

So I ask you tonight to return home, to say a prayer for the family of Martin Luther King -- yeah, it's true -- but more importantly to say a prayer for our own country, which all of us love -- a prayer for understanding and that compassion of which I spoke.

 

We can do well in this country. We will have difficult times. We've had difficult times in the past, but we -- and we will have difficult times in the future. It is not the end of violence; it is not the end of lawlessness; and it's not the end of disorder.

 

But the vast majority of white people and the vast majority of black people in this country want to live together, want to improve the quality of our life, and want justice for all human beings that abide in our land.

And let's dedicate ourselves to what the Greeks wrote so many years ago: to tame the savageness of man and make gentle the life of this world. Let us dedicate ourselves to that, and say a prayer for our country and for our people.

 

Thank you very much.

 

 

Black Lives Matter: Beyonce - Formation さあ、みんな、フォーメーションの準備はできてる ? - ビヨンセ論争にみる Black Lives Matter

2016年2月7日に行われたスーパー・ボウルでのハーフタイム・ショー。

素晴らしいステージ !

 

f:id:classlovesophia:20170811032410p:plain

 

ところが、このパフォーマンスに対して、ビヨンセは非常に激しい批判と攻撃をうけることになります。なぜなんでしょう。

 

下のリンクをクリックして、全米で最高の視聴率を叩きだすNFL (National Football League) の祭典 Super Bowl、その half time の凄い熱狂ステージをみんなも体感してみよう !

  ⇩

 

 

で、なんでこのビヨンセのパフォーマンスが大問題を引き起こすことになったの?

 

ビヨンセ批判を主に展開していったのは、

なんと警察でした・・・。

 

えっ、どこが anti-police だというの?  もう一度、歌詞と一緒に映像を見てみましょう。

 

ハーフタイムショーの前日にリリースされたビヨンセの新曲 Formation を歌詞と共にチェック !

 

youtu.be

 

Formation (lyrics)

 

What happened at the New Wil'ins?
Bitch, I'm back by popular demand


Y'all haters corny with that Illuminati mess
Paparazzi, catch my fly and my cocky fresh
I'm so reckless when I rock my Givenchy dress (stylin')
I'm so possessive so I rock his Roc necklaces
My daddy Alabama, momma Louisiana
You mix that negro with that Creole, make a Texas bama
I like my baby heir with baby hair and afros
I like my negro nose with Jackson Five nostrils
Earned all this money, but they never take the country out me
I got hot sauce in my bag, swag

Oh yeah, baby, oh yeah I, ohhhhh, oh, yes, I like that
I did not come to play with you hoes, haha
I came to slay, bitch
I like cornbreads and collard greens, bitch
Oh, yes, you besta believe it

Y'all haters corny with that lluminati mess
Paparazzi, catch my fly and my cocky fresh
I'm so reckless when I rock my Givenchy dress (stylin')
I'm so possessive so I rock his Roc necklaces
My daddy Alabama, momma Louisiana
You mix that negro with that Creole, make a Texas bama
I like my baby heir with baby hair and afros
I like my negro nose with Jackson Five nostrils
Earned all this money but they never take the country out me
I got hot sauce in my bag, swag

 

I see it, I want it, I stunt, yellow bone it
I dream it, I work hard, I grind 'til I own it
I twirl on them haters, albino alligators
El Camino with the seat low, sippin' Cuervo with no chaser
Sometimes I go off (I go off), I go hard (I go hard)
Get what's mine (take what's mine), I'm a star (I'm a star)
Cause I slay (slay), I slay (hey), I slay (okay), I slay (okay)
All day (okay), I slay (okay), I slay (okay), I slay (okay)
We gon' slay (slay), gon' slay (okay), we slay (okay), I slay (okay)
I slay (okay), okay (okay), I slay (okay), okay, okay, okay, okay
Okay, okay, ladies, now let's get in formation, 'cause I slay
Okay, ladies, now let's get in formation, 'cause I slay
Prove to me you got some coordination, 'cause I slay
Slay trick, or you get eliminated

When he fuck me good, I take his ass to Red Lobster, cause I slay
When he fuck me good, I take his ass to Red Lobster, we gon slay
If he hit it right, I might take him on a flight on my chopper, I slay
Drop him off at the mall, let him buy some J's, let him shop up, 'cause I slay
I might get your song played on the radio station, 'cause I slay
I might get your song played on the radio station, 'cause I slay
You just might be a black Bill Gates in the making, 'cause I slay
I just might be a black Bill Gates in the making

 

I see it, I want it, I stunt, yellow bone it
I dream it, I work hard, I grind 'til I own it
I twirl on them haters, albino alligators
El Camino with the seat low, sippin' Cuervo with no chaser
Sometimes I go off (I go off), I go hard (I go hard)
Get what's mine (take what's mine), I'm a star (I'm a star)
Cause I slay (slay), I slay (hey), I slay (okay), I slay (okay)
I slay (okay), I slay (okay), I slay (okay), I slay (okay)
We gon' slay (slay), gon' slay (okay), we slay (okay), I slay (okay)
I slay (okay), okay (okay), I slay (okay), okay, okay, okay, okay
Okay, okay, ladies, now let's get in formation, I slay
Okay, ladies, now let's get in formation, 'cause I slay
Prove to me you got some coordination, 'cause I slay
Slay trick, or you get eliminated, I slay

Okay, ladies, now let's get in formation, I slay
Okay, ladies, now let's get in formation
You know you that bitch when you cause all this conversation
Always stay gracious, best revenge is your paper


Girl, I hear some thunder
Golly, look at that water, boy, oh lord

 

ビヨンセ、スーパーボウルで黒人運動テーマの新曲 賛否沸騰

AFPBB News

 米国で年間最高のテレビ視聴率を誇り、1億1100万人以上が視聴するというスーパーボウルのハーフタイムショーでこの曲を披露したことで、ビヨンセは可能な限り大勢の聴衆に自分のメッセージを届けた。

 

■「撃つのはやめて」

 新曲ビデオでは、アフリカ系米国人が直面する「現実」を映し出すシーンが瞬く間に展開する。特に取り上げられているのは「黒人の命は軽くない」運動のきっかけとなった、過去2年間の警察による黒人殺害事件の数々だ。

 中でも鮮烈なのは、フード付きスエットシャツを着た少年が、暴動鎮圧用の装備で立ち並ぶ警官隊の前で踊るシーン。警官たちが逮捕されたかのように手を上げると、壁に落書きされた「撃つのはやめて」(Stop shooting us)の文字が映る。

 ビデオの舞台は、米ルイジアナLouisiana)州ニューオーリンズNew Orleans)。ビヨンセは水中に沈みゆく警察車両の屋根の上で歌っている。これは、2005年にハリケーンカトリーナHurricane Katrina)で同市が壊滅状態となり、アフリカ系住民を中心に2000人近い死者が出た際、当局の救助活動に不手際があったことを暗に批判している。

 また一瞬映る新聞の一面には、公民権運動の指導者マーティン・ルーサー・キングMartin Luther King Jr.)牧師の写真とともに、1963年のワシントン大行進の際に牧師が行った演説「私には夢がある」にかけて「夢を見る人を超えて」との見出しが掲げられている。

 歌詞では、ルイジアナアラバマAlabama)出身の両親の下に、テキサス(Texas)州で生まれた生い立ちを歌い、「ジャクソン・ファイブJackson Five)の小鼻を持った自分の黒い鼻が好き」と美の理想を語り、アフリカ系ならではのウェービーな髪をなびかせ5歳の娘、ブルー・アイビー(Blue Ivy)ちゃんの方を振り向く。

 

■ 直後に反発

 米国の「黒人歴史月間(Black History Month)」開始早々に発表された新曲は、通常物議を醸すことがめったにないビヨンセにとって、過去最大の政治路線への転換といえる。

 通常は番組制作側が慎重に当たり障りのない内容を取り上げるスーパーボウルでのパフォーマンスをめぐり、ビヨンセは今回、すぐに非難の集中砲火を浴びることとなった。

 7日のパフォーマンスの中で、ビヨンセと短い革製のジャンプスーツを着たダンサーらが拳を突き上げる振り付けがあったが、一部ではこれが黒人民族主義組織「ブラックパンサー党Black Panther Party)」の敬礼と受け止められた。

 首都ワシントン(Washington D.C.)のホテルで会合を開いていた全米保安官協会(National Sheriffs' Association)の会員らは、ビヨンセのパフォーマンスを見るやテレビの音量を落として背を向けたと、交流サイト(SNS)のフェイスブックFacebook)で明らかにしている。

 また、犯罪取り締まりへの強硬姿勢で知られた前ニューヨーク(New York)市長のルドルフ・ジュリアーニRudy Giuliani)氏も、ビヨンセはアフリカ系米国人社会の内部で警官への敬意が醸成されることにこそ力を尽くすべきだと主張した。ジュリアーニ氏は「これはフットボールであって、ハリウッド(Hollywood)ではない。彼女やわれわれを守り、生かしてくれている人々である警官らを攻撃するために、彼女がこの舞台を利用したことは非常に悪意あることだと思う」と米FOXニュース(Fox News)に語った。

 その一方で、ビヨンセのパフォーマンスに元気づけられたネットユーザーもいる。「黒人の命は軽くない」運動を立ち上げた一人、オパル・トメティ(Opal Tometi)氏はツイッターTwitter)で、今年のスーパーボウルが米テキサス(Texas)州の刑務所で不審死を遂げたアフリカ系女性、サンドラ・ブランド(Sandra Bland)さんの誕生日だったことに触れ、ビヨンセを賞賛するコメントを投稿した。

 たとえ非難を浴びても、ビヨンセはファン層の固さに自信を持っているだろう。スーパーボウルの後は、北米と欧州各地のスタジアムをまわる40日間のツアーが発表されている。(c)AFP/Shaun TANDON

 

Coalition of Police and Sheriffs protest at Beyonce's hometown Houston concert

BBC Newsbeat

 

ビヨンセを警察組合長が批判、警官にコンサートのボイコットを呼びかける

Daily News | Billboard JAPAN

ビヨンセ「ビヨンセを警察組合長が批判、警官にコンサートのボイコットを呼びかける」1枚目/1

 ビヨンセが【第50回スーパーボウル】で行ったパフォーマンスが波紋を呼ぶなか、今度は警察やその関連団体からの批判を招いた。2月16日にニューヨークで行われ失敗に終わったアンチ・ビヨンセ・デモに続き、マイアミ警察組合長が彼女のコンサートをボイコットするようサウス・ビーチの警官たちに呼びかけているのだ。

 マイアミ・ニュースタイムズによると、警察友愛会会長のJavier Ortizは、同シンガーがスーパーボウルのハーフタイム・ショーでアフロにベレー帽姿のダンサーを従え、ブラックパンサー党(1960年代後半~70年代にアメリカで黒人民族主義運動・黒人解放闘争を行った政治組織)への敬意を示したほか、「Formation」のミュージック・ビデオでは、フードを被って踊る幼い少年の前で暴徒鎮圧用の装備をした警官が両手を上げるシーンを挿入したため標的にしているという。

 “Black Lives Matter(黒人の命も大切)”運動では、2014年にファーガソンで起きたマイケル・ブラウン射殺事件の後、“Hands Up, Don't Shoot(両手を上げろ、撃つな)”がスローガンとして使われるようになった。

 2月17日に掲載された同リリースにてOrtizは、「ビヨンセブラックパンサー党の宣伝と法執行機関(警察)への不支持を示すアンチ警察のメッセージにより、アメリカ国民を分裂させる場として今年の【スーパーボウル】を利用したのは事実です」と述べている。

 続けてOrtizはブラックパンサー党のメンバーに殺された警官たちに敬意を表し、「交通規制で脇に寄せた2人のブラックパンサー党員に銃撃され、その傷により亡くなったニューヨーク市警、Richard Raineyに敬意を表します。また、ブラックパンサー党員に暗殺されてきた多数の法律施行官にも敬意を表します」としている。Raineyは1981年に銃弾を受け、昨年3月に他界した。

 

いろいろまとめたいところですが、

この方のブログ以上にうまくまとめた文はないと思いますので、転載させてもらいます。

 

 ビヨンセ"Formation"、それぞれに提示するステイトメント。 

shihowatanabe.hateblo.jp

※今回の記事において、ビヨンセの歌詞中に「negro」と表記されている箇所はそのまま「ニグロ」と訳しています。現代社会において、我々がこの「Nワード」を使うことはタブー以外の何物でもありませんので、ご承知の上お読みください。

 

ビヨンセが米時間の2月6日にいきなりドロップした新曲 ”Formation” 、このブログを読んでくださっている紳士淑女の皆さまにおかれましては、すでにチェック済みの事だろうと思います。

「やっぱりビヨンセはクイーンだ!」と納得させられる、パワーとエネルギーに満ちたMVは素晴らしいの一言。

そしてこの"Formation"、それぞれの拠りどころとなる深い楽曲なんです。

まずは女性として。

ピッチフォーク曰く「ビ・ロソフィー(Bey-losophy、哲学=フィロソフィー/philosophy)」とのことですが、ビヨンセはいつだって、歌を通してフェミニズムにも通じるビヨ哲学を私たちに説いてくれていました。「アンタ、おかしいんじゃないの!?おカネも長所も何一つ無い男のくせに!」と男性バッシングをかます”Bills,Bills,Bills”や「服も靴も家も、私の稼ぎで買ってるの、だって私が頼れるのは自分だけ」と歌う”Indepenent Woman (pt.II)”、そして「問:世界を仕切ってんのは!?答:ガールズ!」と歌う霊長類最大規模のガールズ・アンセム”Run The World (Girls)”などなど、凹んだ時、仕事や学校に行きたく無い時、こんなダメな男と別れたい…と悩むとき、いつだって背中を押してくれたのはクイーン、ビヨンセです。

 

 

そんなビヨンセが、今回も「さあ、レイディース!フォーメーションを組むよ!」と宣戦布告。ビヨンセにそう言われちゃうと、自然にエンジンがかかってしまいます!

「Y'all haters corny with that illuminati mess(またへイターたちがダサいイルミナティ論とか語っちゃってるわけ?)」

「I'm so reckless when I rock my Givenchy dress(ジバンシィのドレスを着た私の戦闘力のヤバさ、分かってんの?)」

「I dream it, I work hard I grind 'til I own it(私は理想を夢見て、働き続けてきた、一生懸命だったのよ、理想の生活を手に入れるまで)」

Drop him off at the mall, let him buy some J's, let him shop up(彼をモールに連れて行って、いくつもエア・ジョーダンを買わせてあげるの、店ごと買い占めるのよ)」

「Always stay gracious, best revenge is your paper(いつだって広い心でいるの、最大のリベンジは稼いだおカネの額よ)

そして、今作でキーになっている一つのフレーズ、それは「slay」。もともと「殺す」という意味のフレーズですが「死ぬほどキマっててカッコいい!ヤバい!」という意味のスラングです。ここ数年、やたら使われるようになりましたが、私の印象だと、とにかく女の子のルックスに対して使われる最大級の褒め言葉って感じです。女性が女性を「ヤバい!」って形容するときに多く使われるイメージ。なぜなら女性向けのゴシップサイトやファッションサイトでよく見かける表現だから。

 

ビヨンセは以下のように使っている他、本曲では「slay」を連発しています。

「When he fuck me good I take his ass to Red Lobster, cause I slay(彼が私を思いっきり満足させてくれた後は、レッド・ロブスターに連れて行くの、私って相当ヤバいから)

「I might get your song played on the radio station, cause I slay(あなたの曲、ラジオ局で掛けられるようにしてあげてもよろしくてよ、なぜなら私って相当ヤバいから)」

※アメリカのラジオ界では、かつて「ペイオラ」と言って、ラジオ曲やDJに賄賂を渡して曲をエアプレイしてもらうことが問題になっていました。

そんなわけで、ビヨンセの号令で世界中の女の子が隊列を組んで戦うぞ!というのが、本曲の魅力の一つなわけです。

このMVを撮影したのは、女性ディレクターのメリナ・マトソウカス。同じビヨンセのMVでは、ほかに”Pretty Huts"も彼女の手によるもの。このMVも、自分の美醜に捉われすぎて自己崩壊寸前の状態になるビヨンセが上手く描き出されていますよね。女性ならすごく共感できるんじゃないかしら。

 

www.youtube.com

 

余談ですが先述した「彼をモールに連れて行って…」のくだりに関連して、私、ビヨちゃんが愛する男に貢ぐ楽曲が大好きなんです。その真骨頂が、ビヨが夫・ジェイ Zのコスプレをして「あなたの時計も服も、アップグレードしてあげる♡」というコレ。リリックに「あんたのネクタイをパープルレーベルにしてあげるわ!」って箇所があるのですが、それに憧れて当時の彼氏にラルフ・ローレンのパープル・レーベルのアイテムをプレゼントしたことがあります(のちに配偶者となる)。

 

www.youtube.com

 

そして、本曲はもう一つ、アフリカン・アメリカンの人々らにとっても拠り所なる楽曲なんです。

 

まず、冒頭でシャウトされるのは「What happened at the NewOrleans? Bitch, I'm back by popular demand (ニューオーリンズで何が起こったのか知ってんのか?ビッチ、ご好評に応えて帰ってきてやったぜ)」というフレーズ。このフレーズ、メッシー・マイアという男性の声なんですね。このメッシーもニューオーリンズ出身。地元そしてソーシャル・メディアで人気のコメディアン&ラッパーでした。そのメッシーなんですが、2010年に彼女のベイビー・シャワー(安産を願うためのお祝い)から帰る途中に銃撃されて命を落としているんですね。まだ犯人は捕まっていないとか。そして、ニューオーリンズといえば、否応なく2005年にニューオーリンズを襲ったハリケーンカトリーナによる大災害の事を思い出します。事実、MVの冒頭はは家屋を飲み込むような水の中、半分水没したパトカーに乗ったビヨンセが映し出されます。また、カトリーナといえば、被災した住民の多くがアフリカン・アメリカンやヒスパニックだったことから、地域や政権が抱える人種問題も浮き彫りにしました。カニエ・ウエストも当時、「George Bush doesn’t care about black people(ジョージ・ブッシュは黒人の事なんて気にしちゃいない)」と発言して話題になりましたよね。

 

 

なので、最初の「ニューオーリンズで何が起こったのか知ってんのか?」というメッシーのフレーズは、そのまま、カトリーナが襲ったこの町(アフリカン・アメリカン・コミュニティ)は、その後お前ら(白人主導の政権)が放ったらかしにしてるんだろ!」というメッセージとしても受け取れます。

…と言う、強烈なステイトメントでスタートするのが、この”Formation”なんです。その後に続くビヨンセのラインにも、アメリカ南部出身のアフリカン・アメリカンである自身のルーツを強調する箇所がチラホラ。

 

「My daddy Alabama, Momma Louisiana You mix that negro with that Creole make a Texas bamma(パパはアラバマ、ママはルイジアナ出身、そんなニグロをミックスして、クレオールを足したのがテキサス娘の私なの)」

ルイジアナクレオールの関係については調べてみてください。クレオール、いろんな意味がありますが、ここではフランス領だった時代のルイジアナに根付く文化や人種の事。ビヨンセ=Beyoncéという綴り、最後の「e」にアクセントが付きますよね。これはフランス語に由来するもので、彼女がクレオールの血筋だというアイデンティティの一つにもなると思います。ちなみに彼女のパパ、マシューは元マネージャーとして、下積み時代からビヨひいてはデスティニーズ・チャイルドを引っ張ってきた人物(今はみんなにシカトされてる)、ママのティナはスタイリストとしてビヨンセのキャリアを支えたことも有名です。ちなみにビヨンセの出身地、テキサス州ヒューストンはどんなところ?と思ったあなた。ビヨンセ”No Angel"のMVをご覧下さいまし!

 

www.youtube.com

 

「I like my baby hair, with baby hair and afros(私は自分の娘のヘアスタイルが大好き、アフロヘアなのよ)

→MVにも出てくる愛娘、ブルー・アイビーちゃん。ナチュラルなアフロ・ヘアですよね。

f:id:shihowatanabe:20160209015853p:plain

「I like my negro nose with Jackson Five nostrils(私は自分のニグロっぽい鼻が好きなの、ジャクソン・5の鼻腔よ)

マイケル・ジャクソンじゃなくてジャクソン・5というところに意味がありそうです。ちなみにスーパーボウルのハーフタイムのショウの衣装、マイケルを模したものでしたね!

 

 

「I got a hot sauce in my bag, swag(私はバッグの中にホット・ソースを入れてるの、スワッグよ)」

→このライン、ネットで一番バズってるのでは?アメリカ南部、ニューオーリンズのあるルイジアナ州あたりはホット・ソース(そのまんまの意味、辛い調味料)がポピュラーなエリア。タバスコの本社もルイジアナにあるそう。ちなみにビヨンセがTIDALで発表した最新プレイリストの名前は「hot souce」だそう!

 

 

でもって、フックでシャウトされる「I like cornbreads and collard greens, bitch」というフレーズ。コーンブレッドとコラードグリーンもまた、ソウルフードの典型的な組み合わせです。

「I just might be a black Bill Gates in the making(私、このままだと黒人版ビル・ゲイツになっちゃうかも)

ビヨンセ、ミシェル・オバマでもなくオプラ・ウィンフリーでもなく、ブラック・ビル・ゲイツを目指していたのですね!でも本当にブラック・ビル・ゲイツになりたいのは夫のジェイなんじゃないかと睨んでいますが…。リル・ウェインもビル・ゲイツになりたがっていることは有名ですね(そういえばウェインもニューオーリンズ出身の人気者)。

 

また、MVからもたくさんのメッセージを読みとることができます。

教会で歌う人々、マルディグラのパレード、クレオール風のドレス、「The Truth」と書かれた新聞の一面にはキング牧師と「More Than A Dreamer(夢以上のものを成し遂げた)」の文字などなど…。そして、極め付けは機動隊の前で踊る小さな少年でしょう。黒いフードを被った少年。フードといえば、トレイヴォン・マーティンが銃撃された事件を想起させます。そのあと、少年が機動隊の行き手を阻むように両手を広げると、降参のポーズのように両腕を上げる機動隊。これは、ファーガソンでマイケル・ブラウンが銃に撃たれた際に行われたデモ運動<Hands up, don't shoot>を思い出させます。ファレル・ウィリアムズも2015年のグラミー賞のステージで、このジェスチャーを模したパフォーマンスを披露していましたよね。

MV中には殴るように壁に書かれた「Don’t Shooting Us(俺たちを撃つな)」のグラフィティ文字(ちなみにディスティニーズ・チャイルドの2ndアルバムのタイトルは『The Writing's on the Wall』…関係ないけど)。そして、冒頭のメッシー・マイアにも繋がるわけですね。

「Now let's get in formation(さあ、列を組んで)」と高らかに歌うビヨンセ、同胞たちを整列させ、まるで自分たちを抑圧する体制に立ち向かおうと鼓舞しているようです。

そして、この曲、決して明るくない、恵まれているとは言えない状況において「それでも生きていかなきゃ行けない」と歌う文脈は、やはりケンドリック・ラマー”Altright"も想起させます(ケンドリックは「We hate po-po, wanna kill us dead in the street fo sho(俺らは警察を憎んでる、あいつらは俺たちのことなんて路上で死ねばいいと思ってるのさ)」とラップしていましたよね)

www.youtube.com

これまでのビヨンセは人種問題に関して明言することがなく、その点を責められることもあったほどでした。むしろ、肌が明るいことも手伝ってか(歌詞の中にも「Yello-Bone」=肌のトーンが明るい黒人というフレーズが)、白人側にいるんじゃないの?と揶揄されることも。そんな彼女が、この楽曲とMVで自身のステイトメントをしっかりと明確にしたというわけですね。なんかビヨンセって、このままいくと現代版アリス・ウォーカーみたいにもなりそう。ニーナ・シモンの方が近い?いずれにせよ、これからのビヨンセはより一層世界を「SLAY」していくに違いなさそうです。

ちなみにこのMV、同じくニューオーリンズを舞台にしたドキュメンタリー映画"That B.E.A.T."』のシーンを無断使用しているとのことで、別の意味でも騒動になっているみたいです。

 

続報などあれば、またしたためます。

では、またね。

渡辺 志保 (id:shihowatanabe)

 

フォーメーション組むって、

自分が今いる場所で

ひとりひとりそれぞれいろんな形で

権力や不正や差別とたたかう、

それがひとりひとりつながって

フォーメーションになるってことだよね。

 

さあ、レイディース、

フォーメーションの準備はできてるかな?

 

Rap / Hip-Hop ラップ・ヒップホップを聴いてみよう

Rap / Hip-Hop

 

What is Hip-Hop? (with pictures)

Hip-hop is a cultural movement best known for its impact on music in the form of the musical genre of the same name. It has its origins in the Bronx, in New York City, during the 1970s, mostly among African Americans but with some influence from the Latin American population of the area as well. The culture has gone from being a relatively underground style to being a major style throughout the world, and it has been commercialized and popularized, especially in the United States. The four traditional pillars of hip-hop are DJing, rapping, breakdancing, and graffiti art. Five additional pillars are sometimes added: hip-hop fashion, beatboxing, hip-hop slang, street knowledge, and street entrepreneurship.

 

graffiti bronx に対する画像結果

Bronx, NY

 

Arrested Development, Revolution

 

(Revolution) (revolution) (Revolution) (revolution).....

Brothers and sisters
Let me share with you some news
As I sit on my plush couch
Watching the news

There has been a rude awakening
That I have marched until my feet have bled
And I have rioted until they called the feds

What's left - My conscience said
What's left - My conscience said

 

As I look out my window
I see the little ones
Playing amongst each other
With their waterguns

In pure poverty
Generations of good people
In cycles of poverty
It bothers me, so I ask myself


I say, "Are you doing as much as you can for the struggle?" (no)
"Am I doing as much as I can for the struggle? (no)

Then why do I cry when
My people are in trouble (yo)
My ancestors slapped me
In the face and said (go)

Harriet Tubman
Told me to get on up
Marcus Garvey said the negro
You get on up

My brother Malcolm X...
Need I name more?
It ain't like we never
Seen blood before


Come on, let's talk
Revolution, now (revolution)
All my people say (revolution)
All my brothers say (revolution)
All my sisters say (revolution)

All my people say (revolution)
Hey (revolution)
All my people say (revolution)
All my people say (revolution)
 
I see blood on one
Malcolm as one shot em
I see tears cause now it
Seems that we forgot him

I seen years of people
Searching for solutions
Restitution, excuses
No more, no more confusion!

Come on, come on
Let's talk right, let's talk right
Talk up, talk up, but
Don't talk up all night!

There's got to be action
If you want satisfaction
If not for yourself
For the young ones
(The children)

The U.N., The U.S
We can't allow you
To tell us a kid in the ghetto
Is not as important as
A kid in Bosnia

I ain't with it (uh huh)
Just forget it (no)
You can't even debate
If you don't understand
Our situation (come on)

You don't want us to go
Get a gun now, do you?
You don't like to see
People running around now

Yet and still you wanna
Live like 9-Oh-2-1-Oh
While we scream out
(Yo) freedom

Five grandmothers ago
They erased it
We must acquire a taste for
Something we've never tasted

So, people, let us
Wet our palates (word)
It's either the bullet or the ballot
Come now (whoo)

Revolution now (revolution)
All my people say (revolution)
All my brothers say (revolution)
All my sisters say (revolution)
Hey (revolution)

All my people say (revolution)
Let's talk about a Revolution
All my people say (revolution)
All my people say
Let's talk about a revolution
Hey (revolution)

(Revolution) (revolution)
(Revolution) (revolution)......

[Aerle Taree]
Now, see, I understand
What my people have said
They tell me to fight
Fight for the ancestors
Who are dead

For Harriet Tubman
Move organization
David Walker
The Black Panthers
Kwame Nkrumah
Marcus Garvey, Jane Pittman
Revolution

(Revolution) (revolution) (Revolution) (revolution)......

 

 

Lauryn Hill, Ex-Factor

 

youtu.be

 

It could all be so simple
But you'd rather make it hard
Loving you is like a battle
And we both end up with scars
Tell me, who I have to be
To get some reciprocity
No one loves you more than me
And no one ever will

Is this just a silly game
That forces you to act this way?
Forces you to scream my name
Then pretend that you can't stay
Tell me, who I have to be
To get some reciprocity
No one loves you more than me
And no one ever will

No matter how I think we grow
You always seem to let me know
It ain't workin', It ain't workin' (No, it ain't workin')
And when I try to walk away
You'd hurt yourself to make me stay
This is crazy, this is crazy (This is crazy, uh-huh!)

I keep letting you back in
How can I explain myself?
As painful as this thing has been
I just can't be with no one else
See I know what we've got to do
You let go, and I'll let go too
'Cause no one's hurt me more than you
And no one ever will

No matter how I think we grow
You always seem to let me know
It ain't workin', It ain't workin' (It ain't workin')
And when I try to walk away
You'd hurt yourself to make me stay
This is crazy, this is crazy

Care for me, care for me!
I know you care for me!
There for me, there for me!
Said you'd be there for me!

Cry for me, cry for me!
You said you'd die for me!
Give to me, give to me!
Why won't you live for me?!

Care for me, care for me!
You said you care for me!
There for me, there for me!
Said you'd be there for me!

Cry for me, cry for me!
You said you'd die for me!
Give to me, give to me!
Why won't you live for me?!

Care for me, care for me!
You said you care for me!
There for me, there for me!
Said you'd be there for me!

Cry for me, cry for me!
You said you'd die for me!
Give to me, give to me!
Why won't you live for me?!

Care for me, care for me!
You said you care for me!
There for me, there for me!
Said you'd be there for me!

Give to me, give to me!
Why won't you live for me?!
Cry for me, cry for me!
You said you'd die for me!

Civil Rights Movement: Malcolm X, The Ballot or the Bullet - マルコム X のスピーチを聞いてみよう !

 

みんなはマルコム X のこと知ってる?

 

f:id:classlovesophia:20170810232749j:plain

 

さっき、日本の WikipediaマルコムX の項目を見てドン引きしちゃったよ。彼のことを「攻撃的」っていっぱい書いてあったけど、新しい世紀を迎えても、まだムズリムのアフリカ系アメリカ人のリーダーについてこんな誤った記述がまかり通っているなんて。

 

ぜひみんなにはスパイク・リー監督の自伝映画 Malcolm X を見てほしいな。映画の最後のシーンを youtube から下に引用しているから、それを見てね。いつマルコムが人を攻撃したことがあるか。誰かを傷つけたことがあるのか。・・・ほんとにもう。

 

Malcolm X - Wikipedia

Malcolm X (1925–1965) was an African-AmericanMuslim minister and human rights activist. To his admirers he was a courageous advocate for the rights of blacks, a man who indicted white America in the harshest terms for its crimes against black Americans; detractors accused him of preaching racism and violence. He has been called one of the greatest and most influential African Americans in history.

 

Spike Lee 監督の Malcolm X (1998) という自伝映画を見るのもいいね。

 

マルコムX』(マルコム エックス、英語: Malcolm X)は、1992年製作・公開のアメリカ合衆国の映画である。スパイク・リー監督。製作はマーヴィン・ワース、スパイク・リー。主演はデンゼル・ワシントン

 

malcolm x spike lee に対する画像結果

 

最後のシーンはもう感動です。見てみましょう。

 

 

Eulogy delivered by Ossie Davis at the funeral of Malcolm X

Faith Temple Church Of God (February 27,1965)

 

“Here – at this final hour, in this quiet place – Harlem has come to bid farewell to one of its brightest hopes -extinguished now, and gone from us forever. For Harlem is where he worked and where he struggled and fought – his home of homes, where his heart was, and where his people are – and it is, therefore, most fitting that we meet once again – in Harlem – to share these last moments with him. For Harlem has ever been gracious to those who have loved her, have fought her, and have defended her honor even to the death.


It is not in the memory of man that this beleaguered, unfortunate, but nonetheless proud community has found a braver, more gallant young champion than this Afro-American who lies before us – unconquered still. I say the word again, as he would want me to : Afro-American – Afro-American Malcolm, who was a master, was most meticulous in his use of words. Nobody knew better than he the power words have over minds of men. Malcolm had stopped being a ‘Negro’ years ago. It had become too small, too puny, too weak a word for him. Malcolm was bigger than that. Malcolm had become an Afro-American and he wanted – so desperately – that we, that all his people, would become Afro-Americans too.

 

There are those who will consider it their duty, as friends of the Negro people, to tell us to revile him, to flee, even from the presence of his memory, to save ourselves by writing him out of the history of our turbulent times. Many will ask what Harlem finds to honor in this stormy, controversial and bold young captain – and we will smile. Many will say turn away – away from this man, for he is not a man but a demon, a monster, a subverter and an enemy of the black man – and we will smile. They will say that he is of hate – a fanatic, a racist – who can only bring evil to the cause for which you struggle! And we will answer and say to them : Did you ever talk to Brother Malcolm? Did you ever touch him, or have him smile at you? Did you ever really listen to him? Did he ever do a mean thing? Was he ever himself associated with violence or any public disturbance? For if you did you would know him. And if you knew him you would know why we must honor him.

 

Malcolm was our manhood, our living, black manhood! This was his meaning to his people. And, in honoring him, we honor the best in ourselves. Last year, from Africa, he wrote these words to a friend: ‘My journey’, he says, ‘is almost ended, and I have a much broader scope than when I started out, which I believe will add new life and dimension to our struggle for freedom and honor and dignity in the States. I am writing these things so that you will know for a fact the tremendous sympathy and support we have among the African States for our Human Rights struggle. The main thing is that we keep a United Front wherein our most valuable time and energy will not be wasted fighting each other.’ However we may have differed with him – or with each other about him and his value as a man – let his going from us serve only to bring us together, now.

 

Consigning these mortal remains to earth, the common mother of all, secure in the knowledge that what we place in the ground is no more now a man – but a seed – which, after the winter of our discontent, will come forth again to meet us. And we will know him then for what he was and is – a Prince – our own black shining Prince! – who didn’t hesitate to die, because he loved us so.”

 

The Ballot or the Bullet (1964)

 

The Ballot or the Bullet - Wikipedia

"The Ballot or the Bullet" is the title of a public speech by human rights activist Malcolm X. In the speech, which was delivered on April 3, 1964, at Cory Methodist Church in Cleveland, Ohio,[1] Malcolm advised African Americans to judiciously exercise their right to vote, but he cautioned that if the government continued to prevent African Americans from attaining full equality, it might be necessary for them to take up arms. It was ranked 7th in the top 100 American speeches of the 20th century by 137 leading scholars of American public address.[2][3]

 

 

Mr. Moderator, Rev. Cleage, brothers and sisters and friends, and I see some enemies. [laughter, applause] In fact, I think we'd be fooling ourselves if we had an audience this large and didn't realize that there were some enemies present.

 

This afternoon we want to talk about the ballot or the bullet. The ballot or the bullet explains itself. But before we get into it, since this is the year of the ballot or the bullet, I would like to clarify some things that refer to me personally, concerning my own personal position.

 

I'm still a Muslim. That is, my religion is still Islam. [applause] My religion is still Islam. I still credit Mr. Muhammad for what I know and what I am. He's the one who opened my eyes. [applause] At present I am the minister of the newly founded Muslim Mosque Incorporated, which has its offices in the Theresa Hotel right in the heart of Harlem, that's the black belt in New York City. And when we realize that Adam Clayton Powell, is a Christian minister, he has Abyssinian Baptist Church, but at the same time he's more famous for his political struggling. And Dr. King is a Christian minister from Atlanta Georgia, or in Atlanta Georgia, but he's become more famous for being involved in the civil rights struggle. There's another in New York, Rev. Galamison, I don't know if you've heard of him out here, he's a Christian minister from Brooklyn, but has become famous for his fight against the segregated school system in Brooklyn. Rev. Cleage, right here, is a Christian minister, here in Detroit, he's head of the Freedom Now Party. All of these are Christian ministers [applause] …all of these are Christian ministers but they don't come to us as Christian ministers, they come to us as fighters in some other category.

 

I am a Muslim minister. The same as they are Christian ministers, I'm a Muslim minister. And I don't believe in fighting today on any one front, but on all fronts. [applause] In fact, I'm a Black Nationalist freedom fighter. [applause] Islam is my religion but I believe my religion is my personal business. [applause] It governs my personal life, my personal morals. And my religious philosophy is personal between me and the God in whom I believe, just as the religious philosophy of these others is between them and the God in whom they believe. And this is best this way. Were we to come out here discussing religion, we'd have too many differences from the out start and we could never get together.

 

So today, though Islam is my religious philosophy, my political, economic and social philosophy is black nationalism. You and I – [applause] As I say, if we bring up religion, we'll have differences, we'll have arguments, and we'll never be able to get together. But if we keep our religion at home, keep our religion in the closet, keep our religion between ourselves and our God, but when we come out here we have a fight that's common to all of us against a enemy who is common to all of us. [applause]

 

The political philosophy of black nationalism only means that the black man should control the politics and the politicians in his own community. The time when white people can come in our community and get us to vote for them so that they can be our political leaders and tell us what to do and what not to do is long gone. [applause]

 

By the same token, the time when that same white man, knowing that your eyes are too far open, can send another Negro in the community, and get you and me to support him, so that he can use him to lead us astray, those days are long gone too. [applause]

 

The political philosophy of black nationalism only means that if you and I are going to live in a black community – and that's where we're going to live, 'cause as soon as you move into one of their….soon as you move out of the black community into their community, it's mixed for a period of time, but they're gone and you're right there all by yourself again. [applause]

 

We must, we must understand the politics of our community and we must know what politics is supposed to produce. We must know what part politics play in our lives. And until we become politically mature, we will always be misled, led astray, or deceived or maneuvered into supporting someone politically who doesn't have the good of our community at heart. So the political philosophy of black nationalism only means that we will have to carry on a program, a political program, of reeducation – to open our people's eyes, make us become more politically conscious, politically mature. And then, we will – whenever we are ready to cast our ballot, that ballot will be cast for a man of the community, who has the good of the community at heart. [applause]

 

The economic philosophy of black nationalism only means that we should own and operate and control the economy of our community. You would never have found—you can't open up a black store in a white community. White man won't even patronize you. And he's not wrong. He got sense enough to look out for himself. It's you who don't have sense enough to look out for yourself. [applause]

 

The white man, the white man is too intelligent to let someone else come and gain control of the economy of his community. But you will let anybody come in and control the economy of your community, control the housing, control the education, control the jobs, control the businesses, under the pretext that you want to integrate. Nah, you're out of your mind. [applause]

 

The political … the economic philosophy of black nationalism only means that we have to become involved in a program of reeducation, to educate our people into the importance of knowing that when you spend your dollar out of the community in which you live, the community in which you spend your money becomes richer and richer, the community out of which you take your money becomes poorer and poorer. And because these Negroes, who have been misled, misguided, are breaking their necks to take their money and spend it with the Man, the Man is becoming richer and richer, and you're becoming poorer and poorer. And then what happens? The community in which you live becomes a slum. It becomes a ghetto. The conditions become rundown. And then you have the audacity to complain about poor housing in a rundown community, while you're running down yourselves when you take your dollar out. [applause]

 

And you and I are in a double trap because not only do we lose by taking our money someplace else and spending it, when we try and spend it in our own community we're trapped because we haven't had sense enough to set up stores and control the businesses of our community. The man who is controlling the stores in our community is a man who doesn't look like we do. He's a man who doesn't even live in the community. So you and I, even when we try and spend our money on the block where we live or the area where we live, we're spending it with a man who, when the sun goes down, takes that basket full of money in another part of the town. [applause]

 

So we're trapped, trapped, double-trapped, triple-trapped. Any way we go, we find that we're trapped. Any every kind of solution that someone comes up with is just another trap. But the political and economic philosophy of black nationalism…the economic philosophy of black nationalism shows our people the importance of setting up these little stores, and developing them and expanding them into larger operations. Woolworth didn't start out big like they are today; they started out with a dime store, and expanded, and expanded, and expanded until today they are all over the country and all over the world and they getting some of everybody's money.

 

Now this is what you and I – General Motors, the same way, it didn't start out like it is. It started out just a little rat-race type operation. And it expanded and it expanded until today it's where it is right now. And you and I have to make a start. And the best place to start is right in the community where we live. [applause]

 

So our people not only have to be reeducated to the importance of supporting black business, but the black man himself has to be made aware of the importance of going into business. And once you and I go into business, we own and operate at least the businesses in our community. What we will be doing is developing a situation, wherein, we will actually be able to create employment for the people in the community. And once you can create some employment in the community where you live, it will eliminate the necessity of you and me having to act ignorantly and disgracefully, boycotting and picketing some cracker someplace else trying to beg him for a job. [applause]

 

Anytime you have to rely upon your enemy for a job, you're in bad shape. [applause] When you — and he is your enemy. You wouldn't be in this country if some enemy hadn't kidnapped you and brought you here. [applause] On the other hand, some of you think you came here on the Mayflower. [laughter]

 

So as you can see, brothers and sisters, today – this afternoon it is not our intention to discuss religion. We're going to forget religion. If we bring up religion we'll be in an argument. And the best way to keep away from arguments and differences, as I said earlier, put your religion at home, in the closet, keep it between you and your God. Because if it hasn't done anything more for you than it has, you need to forget it anyway. [laughter, applause]

 

Whether you are a Christian or a Muslim or a nationalist, we all have the same problem. They don't hang you because you're a Baptist; they hang you 'cause you're black. [applause] They don't attack me because I'm a Muslim. They attack me 'cause I'm black. They attacked all of us for the same reason. All of us catch hell from the same enemy. We're all in the same bag, in the same boat.

 

We suffer political oppression, economic exploitation and social degradation. All of 'em from the same enemy. The government has failed us. You can't deny that. Any time you're living in the 20th century, 1964, and you walking around here singing "We Shall Overcome," the government has failed you. [applause] This is part of what's wrong with you, you do too much singing. [laughter] Today it's time to stop singing and start swinging. [laughter, applause]

 

You can't sing up on freedom. But you can swing up on some freedom. [cheering] Cassius Clay can sing. But singing didn't help him to become the heavyweight champion of the world. Swinging helped him. [applause]

 

So this government has failed us. The government itself has failed us. And the white liberals who have been posing as our friends have failed us. And once we see that all of these other sources to which we've turned have failed, we stop turning to them and turn to ourselves. We need a self-help program, a do-it-yourself philosophy, a do-it-right-now philosophy, a it's-already-too-late philosophy. This is what you and I need to get with. And the only time – the only way we're going to solve our problem is with a self-help program. Before we can get a self-help program started, we have to have a self-help philosophy. Black nationalism is a self-help philosophy.

 

What's so good about it – you can stay right in the church where you are and still take black nationalism as your philosophy. You can stay in any kind of civic organization that you belong to and still take black nationalism as your philosophy. You can be an atheist and still take black nationalism as your philosophy. This is a philosophy that eliminates the necessity for division and argument, 'cause if you're black, you should be thinking black. And if you're black and you not thinking black at this late date, well, I'm sorry for you. [applause]

 

Once you change your philosophy, you change your thought pattern. Once you change your thought pattern you change your attitude. Once you change your attitude it changes your behavior pattern. And then you go on into some action. As long as you got a sit-down philosophy you'll have a sit-down thought pattern. And as long as you think that old sit-down thought, you'll be in some kind of sit-down action. They'll have you sitting in everywhere. [laughter]

 

It's not so good to refer to what you're going to do as a sit-in. That right there castrates you. Right there it brings you down. What goes with it? What – think of the image of someone sitting. An old woman can sit. An old man can sit. A chump can sit, a coward can sit, anything can sit. Well, you and I been sitting long enough and it's time for us today to start doing some standing and some fighting to back that up. [applause]

 

When we look at other parts of this Earth upon which we live, we find that black, brown, red and yellow people in Africa and Asia are getting their independence. They're not getting it by singing, 'We Shall Overcome." No, they're getting it through nationalism. It is nationalism that brought about the independence of the people in Asia. Every nation in Asia gained its independence through the philosophy of nationalism. Every nation on the African continent that has gotten its independence brought it about through the philosophy of nationalism. And it will take black nationalism to bring about the freedom of 22 million Afro-Americans, here in this country, where we have suffered colonialism for the past 400 years. [applause]

 

America is just as much a colonial power as England ever was. America is just as much a colonial power as France ever was. In fact, America is more so a colonial power than they, because she is a hypocritical colonial power behind it. [applause] What is 20th — what, what do you call second-class citizenship? Why, that's colonization. Second-class citizenship is nothing but 20th slavery. How you gonna to tell me you're a second-class citizen? They don't have second-class citizenship in any other government on this Earth. They just have slaves and people who are free! Well, this country is a hypocrite! They try and make you think they set you free by calling you a second-class citizen. No, you're nothing but a 20th century slave. [applause]

 

Just as it took nationalism to remove colonialism from Asia and Africa, it'll take black nationalism today to remove colonialism from the backs and the minds of twenty-two million Afro-Americans here in this country. And 1964 looks like it might be the year of the ballot or the bullet. [applause]

 

Why does it look like it might be the year of the ballot or the bullet? Because Negroes have listened to the trickery and the lies and the false promises of the white man now for too long, and they're fed up. They've become disenchanted. They've become disillusioned. They've become dissatisfied. And all of this has built up frustrations in the black community that makes the black community throughout America today more explosive than all of the atomic bombs the Russians can ever invent. Whenever you got a racial powder keg sitting in your lap, you're in more trouble than if you had an atomic powder keg sitting in your lap. When a racial powder keg goes off, it doesn't care who it knocks out the way. Understand this, it's dangerous.

 

And in 1964, this seems to be the year. Because what can the white man use, now, to fool us? After he put down that March on Washington – and you see all through that now, he tricked you, had you marching down to Washington. Had you marching back and forth between the feet of a dead man named Lincoln and another dead man named George Washington, singing, "We Shall Overcome." [applause]

 

He made a chump out of you. He made a fool out of you. He made you think you were going somewhere and you end up going nowhere but between Lincoln and Washington. [laughter]

 

So today our people are disillusioned. They've become disenchanted. They've become dissatisfied. And in their frustrations they want action. And in 1964 you'll see this young black man, this new generation, asking for the ballot or the bullet. That old Uncle Tom action is outdated. The young generation don't want to hear anything about "the odds are against us." What do we care about odds? [applause]

 

When this country here was first being founded, there were thirteen colonies. The whites were colonized. They were fed up with this taxation without representation. So some of them stood up and said, "Liberty or death!" I went to a white school over here in Mason, Michigan. The white man made the mistake of letting me read his history books. [laughter] He made the mistake of teaching me that Patrick Henry was a patriot, and George Washington – wasn't nothing non-violent about ol' Pat, or George Washington. "Liberty or death" is was what brought about the freedom of whites in this country from the English. [applause]

 

They didn't care about the odds. Why, they faced the wrath of the entire British Empire. And in those days, they used to say that the British Empire was so vast and so powerful that the sun would never set on it. This is how big it was, yet these thirteen little scrawny states, tired of taxation without representation, tired of being exploited and oppressed and degraded, told that big British Empire, "Liberty or death." And here you have 22 million Afro-Americans, black people today, catching more hell than Patrick Henry ever saw. [applause]

 

And I'm here to tell you in case you don't know it – that you got a new, you got a new generation of black people in this country who don't care anything whatsoever about odds. They don't want to hear you ol' Uncle Tom, handkerchief-heads talking about the odds. No! [laughter, applause] This is a new generation. If they're going to draft these young black men, and send them over to Korea or to South Vietnam to face 800 million Chinese… [laughter, applause] If you're not afraid of those odds, you shouldn't be afraid of these odds. [applause]

 

Why is America – why does this loom to be such an explosive political year? Because this is the year of politics. This is the year when all of the white politicians are going to come into the Negro community. You never see them until election time. You can't find them until election time. [applause] They're going to come in with false promises. And as they make these false promises they're going to feed our frustrations, and this will only serve to make matters worse. I'm no politician. I'm not even a student of politics. I'm not a Republican, nor a Democrat, nor an American – and got sense enough to know it. [applause]

 

I'm one of the 22 million black victims of the Democrats. One of the 22 million black victims of the Republicans and one of the 22 million black victims of Americanism. [applause] And when I speak, I don't speak as a Democrat or a Republican, nor an American. I speak as a victim of America's so-called democracy. You and I have never seen democracy – all we've seen is hypocrisy. [applause]

 

When we open our eyes today and look around America, we see America not through the eyes of someone who has enjoyed the fruits of Americanism. We see America through the eyes of someone who has been the victim of Americanism. We don't see any American dream. We've experienced only the American nightmare. We haven't benefited from America's democracy. We've only suffered from America's hypocrisy. And the generation that's coming up now can see it. And are not afraid to say it. If you go to jail, so what? If you're black, you were born in jail. [applause]

 

If you black you were born in jail, in the North as well as the South. Stop talking about the South. As long as you south of the Canadian border, you South. [laughter, applause] Don't call Governor Wallace a Dixie governor, Romney is a Dixie Governor. [applause]

 

Twenty-two million black victims of Americanism are waking up and they are gaining a new political consciousness, becoming politically mature. And as they become – develop this political maturity, they're able to see the recent trends in these political elections. They see that the whites are so evenly divided that every time they vote, the race is so close they have to go back and count the votes all over again. Which means that any block, any minority that has a block of votes that stick together is in a strategic position. Either way you go, that's who gets it. You're in a position to determine who'll go to the White House and who'll stay in the doghouse. [laughter]

 

You're the one who has that power. You can keep Johnson in Washington D.C., or you can send him back to his Texas cotton patch. [applause] You're the one who sent Kennedy to Washington. You're the one who put the present Democratic administration in Washington, D.C. The whites were evenly divided. It was the fact that you threw 80 percent of your votes behind the Democrats that put the Democrats in the White House.

 

When you see this, you can see that the Negro vote is the key factor. And despite the fact that you are in a position to be the determining factor, what do you get out of it? The Democrats have been in Washington, D.C. only because of the Negro vote. They've been down there four years. And they're – all other legislation they wanted to bring up they've brought it up, and gotten it out of the way, and now they bring up you. And now they bring up you! You put them first and they put you last. Because you're a chump! [applause] A political chump.

 

In Washington, D.C., in the House of Representatives there are 257 who are Democrats. Only 177 are Republican. In the Senate there are 67 Democrats. Only 33 are Republicans. The party that you backed controls two-thirds of the House of Representatives and the Senate and still they can't keep their promise to you. 'Cause you're a chump. [applause]

 

Any time you throw your weight behind a political party that controls two-thirds of the government, and that party can't keep the promise that it made to you during election-time, and you're dumb enough to walk around continuing to identify yourself with that party, you're not only a chump but you're a traitor to your race. [applause]

 

What kind of alibi do come up with? They try and pass the buck to the Dixiecrats. Now, back during the days when you were blind, deaf and dumb, ignorant, politically immature, naturally you went along with that. But today, as your eyes come open, and you develop political maturity, you're able to see and think for yourself, and you can see that a Dixiecrat is nothing but a Democrat – in disguise. [applause]

 

You look at the structure of the government that controls this country, is controlled by 16 senatorial committees and 20 congressional committees. Of the 16 senatorial committees that run the government, 10 of them are in the hands of southern segregationists. Of the 20 congressional committees that run the government, 12 of them are in the hands of southern segregationists. And they're going to tell you and me that the South lost the war? [laughter, applause]

 

You, today, are in the hands of a government of segregationists. Racists, white supremacists, who belong to the Democratic party but disguise themselves as Dixiecrats. A Dixiecrat is nothing but a Democrat. Whoever runs the Democrats is also the father of the Dixiecrats. And the father of all of them is sitting in the White House. [applause] I say, and I'll say it again, you got a president who's nothing but a southern segregationist [applause] from the state of Texas. They'll lynch in Texas as quick as they'll lynch you in Mississippi. Only in Texas they lynch you with a Texas accent, in Mississippi they lynch you with a Mississippi accent. [cheering]

 

The first thing the cracker does when he comes in power, he takes all the Negro leaders and invites them for coffee. To show that he's all right. And those Uncle Toms can't pass up the coffee. [laughter, applause] They come away from the coffee table telling you and me that this man is all right [laughter]. 'Cause he's from the South and since he's from the South he can deal with the South. Look at the logic that they're using. What about Eastland? He's from the South. Why not make him the president? If Johnson is a good man 'cause he's from Texas, and being from Texas will enable him to deal with the South, Eastland can deal with the South better than Johnson! [laughter, applause]

 

Oh, I say you been misled. You been had. You been took. [laughter, applause] I was in Washington a couple of weeks ago while the senators were filibustering and I noticed in the back of the Senate a huge map, and on this map it showed the distribution of Negroes in America. And surprisingly, the same senators that were involved in the filibuster were from the states where there were the most Negroes. Why were they filibustering the civil rights legislation? Because the civil rights legislation is supposed to guarantee boarding rights to Negroes from those states. And those senators from those states know that if the Negroes in those states can vote, those senators are down the drain. [applause] The representatives of those states go down the drain.

 

And in the Constitution of this country it has a stipulation, wherein, whenever the rights, the voting rights of people in a certain district are violated, then the representative who's from that particular district, according to the Constitution, is supposed to be expelled from the Congress. Now, if this particular aspect of the Constitution was enforced, why, you wouldn't have a cracker in Washington, D.C. [applause]

 

But what would happen? When you expel the Dixiecrat, you're expelling the Democrat. When you destroy the power of the Dixiecrat, you are destroying the power of the Democratic Party. So how in the world can the Democratic Party in the South actually side with you, in sincerity, when all of its power is based in the South?

 

These Northern Democrats are in cahoots with the southern Democrats. [applause] They're playing a giant con game, a political con game. You know how it goes. One of 'em comes to you and make believe he's for you. And he's in cahoots with the other one that's not for you. Why? Because neither one of 'em is for you. But they got to make you go with one of 'em or the other.

 

So this is a con game, and this is what they've been doing with you and me all of these years. First thing, Johnson got off the plane when he become president, he ask, "Where's Dickey?" You know who Dickey is? Dickey is old southern cracker Richard Russell. Lookie here! Yes, Lyndon B. Johnson's best friend is the one who is a head, who's heading the forces that are filibustering civil rights legislation. You tell me how in the hell is he going to be Johnson's best friend? [applause] How can Johnson be his friend and your friend too? No, that man is too tricky. Especially if his friend is still ol' Dickey. [laughter, applause]

 

Whenever the Negroes keep the Democrats in power they're keeping the Dixiecrats in power. This is true! A vote for a Democrat is nothing but a vote for a Dixiecrat. I know you don't like me saying that. I'm not the kind of person who come here to say what you like. I'm going to tell you the truth whether you like it or not. [applause]

 

Up here in the North you have the same thing. The Democratic Party don't – they don't do it that way. They got a thing they call gerrymandering. They maneuver you out of power. Even though you can vote they fix it so you're voting for nobody. They got you going and coming. In the South they're outright political wolves, in the North they're political foxes. A fox and a wolf are both canine, both belong to the dog family. [laughter, applause] Now, you take your choice. You going to choose a northern dog or a southern dog? Because either dog you choose, I guarantee you, you'll still be in the doghouse.

 

This is why I say it's the ballot or the bullet. It's liberty or it's death. It's freedom for everybody or freedom for nobody. [applause] America today finds herself in a unique situation. Historically, revolutions are bloody, oh yes they are. They have never had a bloodless revolution. Or a non-violent revolution. That don't happen even in Hollywood [laughter] You don't have a revolution in which you love your enemy. And you don't have a revolution in which you are begging the system of exploitation to integrate you into it. Revolutions overturn systems. Revolutions destroy systems.

 

A revolution is bloody, but America is in a unique position. She's the only country in history, in the position actually to become involved in a bloodless revolution. The Russian Revolution was bloody, Chinese Revolution was bloody, French Revolution was bloody, Cuban Revolution was bloody. And there was nothing more bloody than the American Revolution. But today, this country can become involved in a revolution that won't take bloodshed. All she's got to do is give the black man in this country everything that's due him, everything. [applause]

 

I hope that the white man can see this. 'Cause if you don't see it you're finished. If you don't see it you're going to become involved in some action in which you don't have a chance. We don't care anything about your atomic bomb; it's useless, because other countries have atomic bombs. When two or three different countries have atomic bombs, nobody can use them. So it means that the white man today is without a weapon. If you want some action you've got to come on down to Earth, and there's more black people on Earth than there are white people. [applause]

 

I only got a couple more minutes. The white man can never win another war on the ground. His days of war – victory – his days of battleground victory are over. Can I prove it? Yes. Take all the action that's going on this Earth right now that he's involved in. Tell me where he's winning – nowhere. Why, some rice farmers, some rice farmers! Some rice-eaters ran him out of Korea, yes they ran him out of Korea. Rice-eaters, with nothing but gym shoes and a rifle and a bowl of rice, took him and his tanks and his napalm and all that other action he's supposed to have and ran him across the Yalu. Why? Because the day that he can win on the ground has passed.

 

Up in French Indochina, those little peasants, rice-growers, took on the might of the French army and ran all the Frenchmen, you remember Dien Bien Phu! The same thing happened in Algeria, in Africa. They didn't have anything but a rifle. The French had all these highly mechanized instruments of warfare. But they put some guerilla action on. And a white man can't fight a guerilla warfare. Guerilla action takes heart, take nerve, and he doesn't have that. [cheering] He's brave when he's got tanks. He's brave when he's got planes. He's brave when he's got bombs. He's brave when he's got a whole lot of company along with him. But you take that little man from Africa and Asia; turn him loose in the woods with a blade. A blade. [cheering] That's all he needs. All he needs is a blade. And when the sun comes down – goes down and it's dark, it's even-Stephen. [cheering]

 

So it's the, it's the ballot or the bullet. Today, our people can see that we're faced with a government conspiracy. This government has failed us. The senators who are filibustering concerning your and my rights, that's the government. Don't say it's southern senators, this is the government. This is a government filibuster. It's not a segregationist filibuster, it's a government filibuster. Any kind of activity that takes place on the floor of the Congress or the Senate, that's the government. Any kind of dilly-dallying, that's the government. Any kind of pussy-footing, that's the government. Any kind of act that's designed to delay or deprive you and me, right now, of getting full rights, that's the government that's responsible. And anytime you find the government involved in a conspiracy to violate the citizenship or the civil rights of a people in 1964, then you are wasting your time going to that government expecting redress. Instead you have to take that government to the world court and accuse it of genocide and all of the other crimes that it is guilty of today. [applause]

 

So those of us whose political and economic and social philosophy is black nationalism have become involved in the civil rights struggle. We have injected ourselves into the civil rights struggle. And we intend to expand it from the level of civil rights to the level of human rights. As long as you fight it on the level of civil rights, you're under Uncle Sam's jurisdiction. You're going to his court expecting him to correct the problem. He created the problem. He's the criminal! You don't take your case to the criminal, you take your criminal to court. [applause]

 

When the government of South Africa began to trample upon the human rights of the people of South Africa they were taken to the U.N. When the government of Portugal began to trample upon the rights of our brothers and sisters in Angola, it was taken before the U.N. Why, even the white man took the Hungarian question to the U.N. And just this week, Chief Justice Goldberg was crying over three million Jews in Russia, about their human rights – charging Russia with violating the U.N. Charter because of its mistreatment of the human rights of Jews in Russia. Now you tell me how can the plight of everybody on this Earth reach the halls of the United Nations and you have twenty-two million Afro-Americans whose churches are being bombed, whose little girls are being murdered, whose leaders are being shot down in broad daylight? Now you tell me why the leaders of this struggle have never taken [recording impaired ] [their case to the U.N.?]

 

So our next move is to take the entire civil rights struggle – problem – into the United Nations and let the world see that Uncle Sam is guilty of violating the human rights of 22 million Afro-Americans right down to the year of 1964 and still has the audacity or the nerve to stand up and represent himself as the leader of the free world? [cheering] Not only is he a crook, he's a hypocrite. Here he is standing up in front of other people, Uncle Sam, with the blood of your and mine mothers and fathers on his hands. With the blood dripping down his jaws like a bloody-jawed wolf. And still got the nerve to point his finger at other countries. In 1964 you can't even get civil rights legislation and this man has got the nerve to stand up and talk about South Africa or talk about Nazi Germany or talk about Portugal. No, no more days like those! [applause]

 

So I say in my conclusion, the only way we're going to solve it: we got to unite. We got to work together in unity and harmony. And black nationalism is the key. How we gonna overcome the tendency to be at each other's throats that always exists in our neighborhood? And the reason this tendency exists – the strategy of the white man has always been divide and conquer. He keeps us divided in order to conquer us. He tells you, I'm for separation and you for integration, and keep us fighting with each other. No, I'm not for separation and you're not for integration, what you and I are for is freedom. [applause] Only, you think that integration will get you freedom; I think that separation will get me freedom. We both got the same objective, we just got different ways of getting' at it. [applause]

 

So I studied this man, Billy Graham, who preaches white nationalism. That's what he preaches. [applause] I say, that's what he preaches. The whole church structure in this country is white nationalism, you go inside a white church – that's what they preaching, white nationalism. They got Jesus white, Mary white, God white, everybody white – that's white nationalism. [cheering]

 

So what he does – the way he circumvents the jealousy and envy that he ordinarily would incur among the heads of the church – whenever you go into an area where the church already is, you going to run into trouble. Because they got that thing, what you call it, syndicated … they got a syndicate just like the racketeers have. I'm going to say what's on my mind because the preachers already proved to you that they got a syndicate. [applause] And when you're out in the rackets, whenever you're getting in another man's territory, you know, they gang up on you. And that's the same way with you. You run into the same thing. So how Billy Graham gets around that, instead of going into somebody else's territory, like he going to start a new church, he doesn't try and start a church, he just goes in preaching Christ. And he says anybody who believe in him, you go wherever you find him.

 

So, this helps all the churches, and since it helps all the churches, they don't fight him. Well, we going to do the same thing, only our gospel is black nationalism. His gospel is white nationalism, our gospel is black nationalism. And the gospel of black nationalism, as I told you, means you should control your own, the politics of your community, the economy of your community, and all of the society in which you live should be under your control. And once you…feel that this philosophy will solve your problem, go join any church where that's preached. Don't join any church where white nationalism is preached. Why, you can go to a Negro church and be exposed to white nationalism. 'Cause when you are on – when you walk in a Negro church and see a white Jesus and a white Mary and some white angels, that Negro church is preaching white nationalism. [applause]

 

But, when you go to a church and you see the pastor of that church with a philosophy and a program that's designed to bring black people together and elevate black people, join that church. Join that church. If you see where the NAACP is preaching and practicing that which is designed to make black nationalism materialize, join the NAACP. Join any kind of organization – civic, religious, fraternal, political or otherwise that's based on lifting the black man up and making him master of his own community. [applause]

 

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